Saturday, December 18, 2010

Bar Stool Economics, How Taxes Work

Erroneously attributed respectively to David R. Kemerschen, Thomas Davies, and Don Dodson
True authorship is unknown [Snopes]
Suppose that every day, ten men go out for beer and the bill for all ten comes to $100. If they paid their bill the way we pay our taxes, it would go something like this:
  • The first four men (the poorest) would pay nothing.
  • The fifth would pay $1.
  • The sixth would pay $3.
  • The seventh would pay $7.
  • The eighth would pay $12.
  • The ninth would pay $18.
  • The tenth man (the richest) would pay $59.
So, that's what they decided to do. The ten men drank in the bar every day and seemed quite happy with the arrangement, until one day, the owner threw them a curve. "Since you are all such good customers", he said, "I'm going to reduce the cost of your daily beer by $20". Drinks for the ten now cost just $80.
The group still wanted to pay their bill the way we pay our taxes so the first four men were unaffected. They would still drink for free. But what about the other six men - the paying customers? How could they divide the $20 windfall so that everyone would get his "fair share?"
They realized that $20 divided by six is $3.33. But if they subtracted that from everybody's share, then the fifth man and the sixth man would each end up being paid to drink his beer. So, the bar owner suggested that it would be fair to reduce each man's bill by roughly the same amount, and he proceeded to work out the amounts each should pay.
And so:
  • The fifth man, like the first four, now paid nothing (100% savings).
  • The sixth now paid $2 instead of $3 (33%savings).
  • The seventh now pay $5 instead of $7 (28%savings).
  • The eighth now paid $9 instead of $12 (25% savings).
  • The ninth now paid $14 instead of $18 (22% savings).
  • The tenth now paid $49 instead of $59 (16% savings).
Each of the six was better off than before. And the first four continued to drink for free. But once outside the restaurant, the men began to compare their savings. "I only got a dollar out of the $20," declared the sixth man. He pointed to the tenth man, "but he got $10!" "Yeah, that's right," exclaimed the fifth man. "I only saved a dollar, too. It's unfair that he got ten times more than I!" "That's true!!" shouted the seventh man. "Why should he get $10 back when I got only two? The wealthy get all the breaks!" "Wait a minute," yelled the first four men in unison. "We didn't get anything at all. The system exploits the poor!" The nine men surrounded the tenth and beat him up.
The next night the tenth man didn't show up for drinks, so the nine sat down and had beers without him. But when it came time to pay the bill, they discovered something important. They didn't have enough money between all of them for even half of the bill!
And that, boys and girls, journalists and college professors, is how our tax system works. The people who pay the highest taxes get the most benefit from a tax reduction. Tax them too much, attack them for being wealthy, and they just may not show up anymore. In fact, they might start drinking overseas where the atmosphere is somewhat friendlier.


Sunday, November 7, 2010

Glenn Beck


Glenn Beck Speeches

8-28 Keynote Speech

Glenn Beck's Letter To His Daughter 2010 [Used in Speech at Liberty U Graduation] 

Glenn Beck's CPAC Speech, February 22 2010 


Glenn Edward Lee Beck Quotes
"Question With Boldness, Hold To The Truth, Speak Without Fear"

"Social Justice: Forced redistribution of wealth with a hostility towards individual property under the guise of charity and or justice."

"Its really not a smear when you use people's own words [IN CONTEXT]"

"There's nothing more American than deporting people who disagree with you, right brian?" (said with Hilarious sarcasm :) 

"People will confuse the truth with hate. Don't. The truth can be hard to hear sometimes, but when your doctor tells you, you have cancer he dos'nt hate you. 'Why do all these doctors hate me? They keep telling me that I have cancer!' Because they're trying to save you! We could go to a doctor and have him tell us that we have sniffels and that's what everybody in Washington is doing. 'Oh no keep going, keep going your fine.' I and millions of other Americans are the doctors that are saying you have cancer and we can treat it, but its radical treatment, but if you don't take it we're gonna die. I don't hate you, I don't hate you. We must reach out to those friends of ours and I know you already have, we must find ways to have civil dialogues with reasonable people."

"Do not confuse the Truth with Hatred"

"Not Racist, Not Violent, Just no longer Silent"

"and when you figure it out they change the name again believe me social and ecological justice and all this bull crap is gonna be changed again, its not the Lord's work it is man's work for a global government" May 12, 2010
"I believe in the finger of God being on this nation. But I do not believe in Manifest Destiny. There is a difference between divine providence and manifest destiny.
Divine providence is when you find yourself doing something, and trying to live your life right, and all of a sudden your like 'Oh my gosh, we thought we made this error, we thought were going here, or, we only stood here because we felt it was the right thing to do and look at the finger of God now here at the end.'
Manifest destiny is: 'God sent me on a mission get outta my way!'
There's a huge difference, there's a huge difference, and the difference is arrogance. Manifest destiny and divine providence; some people don't see a difference between, because they're very, they're very similar exactly like charity and social justice, exactly like individual salvation and collective salvation." (7-23-10)
“Climate change is the most ridiculous thing I’ve ever heard, because the climate always changes, it is constantly changing”

"The only way to waste a vote is to not vote, the only way to fix the system is to get up and vote, get up and vote now!"

 ”Where you go I will go. Where you lodge I will lodge. Your people are my people, your God is my God. Where you die, I will die, and there will I be buried” - [youtube]

"We love the Jewish people as they are" said at 8-21 restoring Love rally, in reference to Christian's need to love Jews without trying to convert them.  

“This whole system has been built to tell you, your not really complete without this certain product, or this certain label that your buying, or a certain philosophy or a certain politician, or a certain network. It’s a lie. You have everything you need. You come to Earth complete, as long as you have the truth.”

"Slavery is more than just the whips and the chains, that's horrible, but it also means your spirit, your opportunity to be who you are, everything. When they take away your ability, tell me, tell me if you're ignorant, how you're not a slave? You're a slave, To everything and everything everybody tells you." -



Glenn On Immigration, not disagreeing with the President of the Chamber of Commerce on Immigration 10-14-10 H3
"Now here's where we disagree. I disagree with the idea of open borders and uh and and everything else uh, I, I believe in the rule of law and enforce[ing] our own laws, um, I don't demonize those people who are here, they're um, people who have come here illegally and and they really do want a... I mean if I were a family, if I was a dad and had a family, in Mexico, damn right if I saw America not enforcing their own laws and I could get out of a country spiraling out of control and closer and closer to a drug narco-state, you'd bet I'd get outta there. Um, so its not about them its about us, we need to enforce our own laws while we make the door of our country bigger and easier to bring people in legally so we know who's here, and we... [yeah I would completely agree with what you just said]" 

Glenn Beck puts into context endless out of context accusations

"this is horrible to say and I wonder if I'm alone in this. You know it took me about a year to start hating the 911 victims' families. Took me about a year. um, and I had such compassion for them and I real.. you know and I wanted to help em, & I was behind em and you know lets give em money, lets get started, you know all of this stuff. And I really didn't you know, all the three thousand victims' families, I don't hate all of them, you know, I hate about ten of them. And you know but when I see, you know a 9/11 victim family on television, or whatever, I’m just like, ‘Oh shut up’ I’m so sick of them because they’re always complaining and we did our best for em. And you know, again, its only about ten."


8-28-2010 Restoring Honor

How New Paper Front Pages Covered 8-28 -

How  Online Media Front Pages Covered 8-28 -

What It Was About Confirmed Beforehand By Glenn Beck -
GB Discussing [Then Upcoming] 8-28, and The Response

CL Jackson's Acceptance Speech for the Restoring Honor Rally's Badge of Merit 8-28-10

8-28-Restoring Honor Rally full coverage

Glenn Beck ID:


predictions TIMELINE, very very incomplete 

Glenn came across the threats of Bin Laden in the 90s, said there would be buildings and bodies in the streets of New York, ['won't someone pay attention and take this guy seriously']

then, 9-11


The Egyptian Revolution began, Glenn said this could spread across the middle east, it did.

Addressing The Examiner's Mischaracterizations

0. the Examiner's Ryan Witt seems bewildered at the 'mystery' as to how Beck came up with the 85% number for how often he was right [don't be a jackass about hyperbole].

1. Van Jones NOT a Convicted Felon

He got it wrong and upon realizing it, immediately corrected it. No one could be expected to do more or less. It along with the firing of Van Jones, [never Beck's goal], distracted from Beck's true purpose: the spotlight being shined on White House Hiring practices. The legitimacy of the question is recorded in the East Bay Express, in Van Jones' own words. "I was a rowdy nationalist on April 28th, and then the verdicts came down on April 29th... By August, I was a communist.", "I'm willing to forgo the cheap satisfaction of the radical pose for the deep satisfaction of radical ends"
2. Believing that FEMA Camps Exist

In context it is clear that his researchers "Could not debunk" them, which is not the same as proving them. It is clear Beck misunderstood a briefing and upon looking at the research himself discovered it to not be as complete as he thought.

They understand freedom, I gotta tell you, We don’t even understand freedom anymore. We are a country that is headed toward socialism, totalitarianism, beyond your wildest imagination.
I have to tell you, I’m doing a story tonight, that, I wanted to debunk these FEMA camps, I’m tired of hearing about them, You know about them? [No] I wanted to debunk them, well we’ve now for several days done research on them, I can’t debunk them, and we’re going to cary the story tonight. [I don’t know anything about them]
It is our government, if you trust our government its fine, if you have any kind of fear that we are headed towards a totalitarian state, look out, buckle up, there’s something going on in our country that is, uh, aint good…
No they’re not FEMA Trailors, FEMA Prisons. FEMA “CAMPS”, these were actual prisons that were built under the Bush administration. And they were built for a couple of specific reasons. One, was for a massive influx of Illegal Immigrants that we would have to jail. Now, they’re sitting there empty, if you’ve got a problem in California, why aren’t we using those? ? Its an odd thing, it has nothing to do with that. And we’re actually considering, not enforcing our law, yet again in California. Here people were taken off of the streets, violent criminals some of them, and we’re just going to dump them back into the streets! California is absolutely out of control. You want to see your future, America, if we continue to do this, just look to California. Cause that’s where we’re headed!…
[And these prisons are all over the US] yeah, [and they’re all empty] yeah, and they’re all… well here’s the thing, you’ll see it tonight, you’ll see that tonight. And I’ll tell you, you know, something just doesn’t sit right with me. You know we were talking off the air, we have a standing batallion in this country in Maryland. Its not the National Guard. I’m, my show’s going to send out letters to all of the Governors, I want all of the governors on record, saying they will not allow the United States Army or any branch of the Military, [in] unless they call them up. [What’s this batallion supoosed to do] Its for ‘emergencies’. Its for civil unrest. [Like the national guard?] uh yeah but its not the National Guard. [its a super guard?] Its a super guard. [When did it start] August it was started, they say it was for September eleventh, but it was actually put into place this last August. [So you’re saying we’re having trouble for a while for reqruiting the military, but you’re saying we didn’t have any trouble forming this force? Well who pays for it?] The United States Government, you do, your taxe dollars are going to pay for it. Its against the Constitution. [Alright yesterday you said you were in favor of marijuana being legalized you have ten seconds to defend it! haha] Only for this reason, let’s have the real debate, they’re talking about a budget crisis in there [California], we’ve got Mexico burning down. We either enforce our laws and put people who smoke pot behind bars, or we legalize it to relieve the pressure done on the border and we relieve the pressure, so we don’t have a Constitutional crisis. Obama says there’s a Federal law against it but California if you want it great and you pass it and I won’t enforce the law. Enforce the laws or change them.”

Glenn Beck (via mediaexposed)
Here’s what Beck said on his show THAT NIGHT, “I don’t believe in the FEMA Prison… As I came in and did the show today [Fox and Friends], and then I went into my office and I was looking at all the research that was being compiled and it wasn’t complete. And I am not willing to bring something to you that is half baked. If these things exist, that’s bad, and we will cover it. If they don’t its irresponsible to Not debunk this story.” -Glenn Beck
Asderathos: The SAME DAY context shows Beck was plainly informed by staff that they ‘couldn’t debunk it’, and shortly believed they existed, saying so on
In an aside, Beck sometimes USED TO refer to getting his show staffers to do something as “I” did this or “I” did that. Part of the veneer of Television that he TORE OFF when he left FN.
Aaand of course later, he debunked the living crap outta em.

3. Hyper-inflation

Beck has warned about the risks of inflation, deflation, and hyperinflation. He has also stipulated he didn't know when hyperinflation would happen, [and hoped he was wrong] so it not happening YET does not make him wrong.
Of course the official inflation rate numbers are BUNK. They discount Food and Energy to come up with the Govt. numbers. 

4. Buy Gold

Beck has always disclosed that he buys gold the "Crazy Way" [old gold coins] and has not predicted a "spike". Gold however has gone up since he started promoting Gold-Line, from $700 an ounce to over $1500. 
This is the lamest attack you could possibly make on Beck. Also he tells you to do your own research.
"I don't buy gold as an investment ... I buy it as insurance"
"Find out if its right for you, its not right for everybody."

"I buy it in an insane way, I buy old gold coins, ask them why I buy pre-1933 gold coins, please whatever you do, just don't buy paper gold." 
-Glenn Beck
5. The Complete Lives System or Death Panels

If you understand the behavioral forces behind Obama-Care, and about the "Complete Lives System", you recognize the argument has ALWAYS been, Obama care subsidizes competition out of business, creates shortages, which demands rationing: with the decision of prioritizing treatment in the hands of the government.
Immense numbers of doctors vowed to, and have quit.

6. Cash for clunkers website notification 

Cash for clunkers website notification claimed authorization to access your computer's data un-restrictively. Glenn pointed this out, he did not claim it had happened, but that the info suggested it could be justified. Could and Would are two different words, dummy dumb dumb dumbs.

7. Herbert Hoover PROGRESSIVE

Reconstruction Finance Corporation, although not a direct parallel operated for the same "bail out" goals as TARP. Hoover was a proponent of the concept that public-private cooperation was the way to achieve high long-term growth [very NOT Conservative].
Hoover ran on Engineering credentials. [Its doubtful the Examiner has the same definition of "Conservative" as Glenn, who's does not include Tariff's in it's criteria; two words, Smoot-Hawley.

8. DDT

Starts at 6:44

9. The Civilian National Security Force

That's an Obama QUOTE. Perhaps a self negating prophecy; Everyone went ape-dung over it so it could not happen.

10. Eric Massa Interview
When this is in the top 10 times Beck was "wrong" [and its only the second legitimate item], I think its about time to laugh one's ass off. He smooth talked his way into an interview with the carrot of illegal goings on, got an hour of air time for 5 minute's worth of, very legal, dirt. 

11. Shirley Sherrod

These idiots at the examiner take Beck's characterization that FN didn't "report on the story" until after she resigned TRUE, and try and promote supposed commercial plugs [uncited, which I never saw] and the website as if it were the same thing. BUT all that's balderdash.
THE ONE WHO FIRED HER DID SO ON THE BASIS THAT IT WOULD, future tense, BE ON GLENN BECK TONIGHT. There was no plug. Beck didn't even know about it. None of the shows presumed to have 'plugged the story' had been on yet. And I thought Eric Massa was pathetic.
00. As an easy sampling [for me] they link to a slew of 'fact checks' by politifact and they mark Van Jones being an avowed "Revolutionary Communist" as "mostly false" WHEN HE SAID HE WAS IN HIS OWN WORDS. and I thought the Shirley Sherrod BS was pathetic.


10% of Muslims are Terrorist-E "World Public Opinion", Glenn = Right.


Friday, October 22, 2010

James Madison

"Father of the Constitution"

Madison, one of the more outspoken members of the Continental Congress, was nevertheless a shy man; he  protested the title "Father of the Constitution" as being "a credit to which I have no claim... The Constitution was not, like the fabled Goddess of Wisdom, the offspring of a single brain. It ought to be regarded as the work of many heads and many hands".

When Madison returned to the Virginia state legislature, at the close of the Revolutionary War, he grew alarmed at the fragility of the Articles of Confederation, especially the divisiveness of state governments, and strongly advocated a new constitution.

To encourage ratification of the Constitution, Madison joined Alexander Hamilton and John Jay to write the Federalist Papers in 1787 and 1788.

In Virginia in 1788, Madison led the Federalist cause at the Virginia Ratifying Convention, debating with Patrick Henry and others who sought revisions (such as the Bill of Rights) before its ratification.
Initially Madison "adamantly maintained ... that a specific bill of rights remained unnecessary because the Constitution itself was a bill of rights." 

Madison had three main objections to a specific bill of rights:
1. It was unnecessary, since it purported to protect against powers that the federal government had not been granted; 
2. It was dangerous, since enumeration of some rights might be taken to imply the absence of other rights; and
3. At the state level, bills of rights had proven to be useless paper barriers against government powers.
The plainly protective Amendments 9 and 10 leave little doubt as to the failings inherent in Republican Govt. that of lapsed vigilance; the Amendments thereby, I believe, surely better protected but never wholly so there-against.

However, the anti-Federalists demanded a bill of rights in exchange for their support for ratification.

In A Letter to Thomas Jefferson on a Bill of Rights October 17, 1788 [Link] Madison wrote:
"My own opinion has always been in favor of a bill of rights; provided that it be so framed as not to imply powers not meant to be included in the enumeration. At the same time I have never thought the omission a material defect, nor been anxious to supply it even by subsequent amendment, for any other reason than that it is anxiously desired by others. I have favored it because I suppose it might be of use, and if properly executed could not be of disservice."
and towards the end of it-
 "I am inclined to think that absolute restrictions in cases that are doubtful, or where emergencies may overrule them, ought to be avoided. The restrictions however strongly marked on paper will never be regarded when opposed to the decided sense of the public, and after repeated violations in extraordinary cases they will lose even their ordinary efficacy."
He wrote Hamilton at the New York ratifying convention, stating his opinion that "ratification was in toto and 'for ever'"[1]. The Virginia convention had considered conditional ratification worse than a rejection.

People submitted more than 200 proposals from across the new nation. Madison ignored proposals that called for structural change to the government and synthesized the remainder into a list for the protection of civil rights, such as free speech, right of the people to bear arms, and habeas corpus. 
On June 8, 1789, Madison submitted his proposal [a package of twelve amendments to the Constitution] to Congress.  

Madison's preemptive proposal 
Prior to listing his proposals for a number of constitutional amendments, Madison acknowledged a major reason for some of the discontent with the Constitution as written:
"I believe that the great mass of the people who opposed [the Constitution], disliked it because it did not contain effectual provision against encroachments on particular rights, and those safeguards which they have been long accustomed to have interposed between them and the magistrate who exercised the sovereign power: nor ought we to consider them safe, while a great number of our fellow citizens think these securities necessary."
In his speech to Congress on that day, Madison said:
"For while we feel all these inducements to go into a revisal of the constitution, we must feel for the constitution itself, and make that revisal a moderate one. I should be unwilling to see a door opened for a re-consideration of the whole structure of the government, for a re-consideration of the principles and the substance of the powers given; because I doubt, if such a door was opened, if we should be very likely to stop at that point which would be safe to the government itself: But I do wish to see a door opened to consider, so far as to incorporate those provisions for the security of rights, against which I believe no serious objection has been made by any class of our constituents." 
"[Madison introduced] amendments culled mainly from state constitutions and state ratifying convention proposals, especially Virginia's [2]." -Leonard W. Levy "Origins of the Bill of Rights" 'New Haven: Yale University Press' (1999) ISBN 0-300-08901-5, p.35
Patrick Henry persuaded the Virginia legislature not to elect Madison as one of their first Senators; but Madison was directly elected to the new United States House of Representatives and became an important leader from the First Congress (1789) through the Fourth Congress (1797).

By 1791, ten of Madison's proposed amendments were ratified and became the Bill of Rights. Contrary to his wishes, the Bill of Rights was not integrated into the main body of the Constitution, and it did not apply to the states until the passages of Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments restricted the powers of the states. The Second Amendment originally proposed by Madison (but not then ratified: see United States Bill of Rights [Link] ) was later ratified in 1992 as the Twenty-seventh Amendment to the United States Constitution. The remaining proposal was intended to accommodate future increase in members of the House of Representatives. 

[1] "in toto" def. - Totally; altogether 
[2] Article 13 of the Virginia Declaration of Rights


"If men were angels, no government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on government would be necessary. In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself. A dependence on the people is, no doubt, the primary control on the government; but experience has taught mankind the necessity of auxiliary precautions." -James Madison, Federalist 51 -

"All men are entitled to the full and free excercise of religion" - James Madison, May 1776

"better proof ofreverence for that holy name wouldbe not to profane it by making it a topic of legislative discussion." -James Madison's response to attempts to insert "JesusChrist"'s name into the Virginia Bill for Religious Liberty

"Belief in a God All powerful wise and good, is so essential to the moral order of the Worldand happiness of man, that arguments to enforce it cannot be drawn from too many sources."

"It is impossible fortheman of pious reflection not to percieve in [the convention] a finger of that Almighty hand."

"You give me a credit to which I have no claim, in calling me "The writer of the Constitution of the U.S." This was not, like the fabled Goddess of Wisdom, the offspring of a single brain. It ought to be regarded as the work of many heads & many hands. Your criticism on the "Collocation of books in the Library of our University, may not be without foundation. But the doubtful boundary between some subjects, and the mixture of different subjects in the same works, necessarily embarrass the task of classification" -In a Letter to William Cogswell











Madison and Hamilton, Party and Powers pg122-124


Madison and the Bill of Rights pg 124-125

"All men are entitled to the full and free excercise of religion"

"better proof ofreverence for that holy name wouldbe not to profane it by making it a topic of legislative discussion." -James Madison's response to attempts to insert "JesusChrist"'s name into the Virginia Bill for Religious Liberty

"Belief in a God All powerful wise and good, is so essential to the moral order of the Worldand happiness of man, that arguments to enforce it cannot be drawn from too many sources."

"It is impossible fortheman of pious reflection not to percieve in [the convention] a finger of that Almighty hand."



Wednesday, October 20, 2010

B. Franklin, Printer

Dr. Benjamin Franklin [Wikipedia]

Franklin earned the title of "The First American" for his early and indefatigable campaigning for colonial unity; as a writer and spokesman in London for several colonies, then as the first American ambassador to France, he exemplified the emerging American nation. 
Franklin was foundational in defining the American ethos as a marriage of the practical and democratic values of thrift, hard work, education, community spirit, self-governing institutions, and opposition to authoritarianism both political and religious, with the scientific and tolerant values of the Enlightenment

In the words of historian Henry Steele Commager, "In Franklin could be merged the virtues of Puritanism without its defects, the illumination of the Enlightenment without its heat." 

To Walter Isaacson, this makes Franklin, "the most accomplished American of his age and the most influential in inventing the type of society America would become."

Thirteen Virtues

Franklin sought to cultivate his character by a plan of thirteen virtues, which he developed at age 20 (in 1726) and continued to practice in some form for the rest of his life. His autobiography lists his thirteen virtues as:
  1. "Temperance. Eat not to dullness; drink not to elevation."
  2. "Silence. Speak not but what may benefit others or yourself; avoid trifling conversation."
  3. "Order. Let all your things have their places; let each part of your business have its time."
  4. "Resolution. Resolve to perform what you ought; perform without fail what you resolve."
  5. "Frugality. Make no expense but to do good to others or yourself; i.e., waste nothing."
  6. "Industry. Lose no time; be always employ'd in something useful; cut off all unnecessary actions."
  7. "Sincerity. Use no hurtful deceit; think innocently and justly, and, if you speak, speak accordingly."
  8. "Justice. Wrong none by doing injuries, or omitting the benefits that are your duty."
  9. "Moderation. Avoid extremes; forbear resenting injuries so much as you think they deserve."
  10. "Cleanliness. Tolerate no uncleanliness in body, cloaths, or habitation."
  11. "Tranquility. Be not disturbed at trifles, or at accidents common or unavoidable."
  12. "Chastity. Rarely use venery but for health or offspring, never to dullness, weakness, or the injury of your own or another's peace or reputation."
  13. "Humility. Imitate Jesus and Socrates."

    Franklin did not try to work on them all at once. Instead, he would work on one and only one each week "leaving all others to their ordinary chance". While Franklin did not live completely by his virtues and by his own admission, he fell short of them many times, he believed the attempt made him a better man contributing greatly to his success and happiness, which is why in his autobiography, he devoted more pages to this plan than to any other single point; in his autobiography Franklin wrote, "I hope, therefore, that some of my descendants may follow the example and reap the benefit."
The Junto
Also known as the Leather Apron Club

the word [Junto] is a mistaken use of the masculine singular Spanish adjective "joined", mistaken for the feminine singular noun "junta", "a meeting". Both derive from Latin "iunct-", past participle of "iungere", "to join" 
In 1727, Benjamin Franklin, then 21, created the Junto, a group of "like minded aspiring artisans and tradesmen who hoped to improve themselves while they improved their community." The club met Friday nights, first in a tavern and later in a house, to discuss moral, political, and scientific topics of the day; it subsequently gave rise to many organizations in Philadelphia. Although most of the members were older than Franklin, he was clearly their leader.

Reading was a great pastime of the Junto, but books were rare and expensive. The members created a library, initially assembled from their own books. This did not suffice, however. Franklin then conceived the idea of a subscription library, which would pool the funds of the members to buy books for all to read. This was the birth of the Library Company of Philadelphia: its charter was composed by Franklin in 1731. 

In 1732, Franklin hired the first American librarian, Louis Timothee. Originally, the books were kept in the homes of the first librarians, but in 1739 the collection was moved to the second floor of the State House of Pennsylvania, now known as Independence Hall. In 1791, a new building was built specifically for the library. 

The Library Company is now a great scholarly and research library with 500,000 rare books, pamphlets, and broadsides, more than 160,000 manuscripts, and 75,000 graphic items.

Franklin describes the formation and purpose of the Junto in his autobiography:
I should have mentioned before, that, in the autumn of the preceding year, [1727] I had form'd most of my ingenious acquaintance into a club of mutual improvement, which we called the Junto; we met on Friday evenings. The rules that I drew up required that every member, in his turn, should produce one or more queries on any point of Morals, Politics, or Natural Philosophy, to be discuss'd by the company; and once in three months produce and read an essay of his own writing, on any subject he pleased.
Our debates were to be under the direction of a president, and to be conducted in the sincere spirit of inquiry after truth, without fondness for dispute or desire of victory; and to prevent warmth, all expressions of positiveness in opinions, or direct contradiction, were after some time made contraband, and prohibited under small pecuniary penalties. 

Hutchinson Letters Affair

an incident that increased tensions between the American colonies and the British government [prior to the American Revolution], which by December 1772, was strained to begin with by the Sugar, Stamp, Quartering, Declaratory and Townshend Acts.

At that time, Benjamin Franklin, who was living in England as a representative of several colonies including Massachusetts, anonymously received a packet of thirteen letters. In these private letters, Thomas Hutchinson, the royal Governor of Massachusetts, and lieutenant governor Andrew Oliver made some damning comments which proved they were encouraging London to crack down on the rights of the Bostonians, [on colonial rights]. Hutchinson recommended that popular government be taken away from the people "by degrees", and that there should be "abridgement of what are called English liberties." 

Franklin, believing that his friends in Boston should know this information, sent the letters to them on the condition that they not be published or widely circulated. However, the letters were published in the Boston Gazette in June 1773. Bostonians were outraged and forced Hutchinson back to England.

The British government was infuriated about the publication of private correspondence and demanded to know who had leaked the letters. In December 1773, the government accused three innocent people of leaking the documents. To protect them, Franklin admitted his guilt and he was reprimanded in January 1774. Franklin now appeared to the British as the fomenter of serious trouble. Hopes for a peaceful solution ended as he was systematically ridiculed and humiliated by Solicitor-General Alexander Wedderburn, before the Privy Council on January 29, 1774. Later that year, [or March 1775 conflicting sources] Franklin left England and returned to America, [where he would serve in the Second Continental Congress and help lead the American Revolution].

Editor of the Declaration of Independence
[for the Acceptance of Congress Without Its Mangling]

The committee of Five, after discussing the general outline that the document should follow, decided that Jefferson would write the first draft. He then consulted the others, made some changes, and then produced another copy incorporating these alterations. The committee presented this copy to the Congress on June 28, 1776. The title of the document was "A Declaration by the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress assembled.".

Although he was temporarily disabled by gout and unable to attend most meetings of the Committee, Franklin made several key changes to the draft.
ReEnactment from the mini-series John Adams

At the signing, he is quoted as having replied to a comment by Hancock that they must all hang together: "Yes, we must, indeed, all hang together, or most assuredly we shall all hang separately."


Founding Faith 
by Steven Waldman





The Works of Benjamin Franklin
___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Benjamin Franklin 
Published Works

including the private as well as the Official and Scientific Correspondence 
Together with The Unmutilated and Correct Version of the Autobiography

Benjamin Franklin's Autobiography
 Edited by Frank Woodworth Pine

Benjamin Franklin's Letter to Alexander Small Nov 5, 1789

1789 Benjamin Franklin 155
To Alexander Small
Philadelphia, 5, November, 1789-

   Dear Sir:--I received your several favors of April 23rd, May 9th, and June 2d, together with the manuscript concerning Ventilation, which will be inserted in our next volume.
   I have long been of your opinion that your [England's] legal provision for the poor is a very great evil, operating as it does to the encouragement of idleness. We have followed your example, and begin now to see our error, and, I hope, shall reform it. I find by your letter, that every man has patience enough to bear calmly and coolly the injuries done to other people. You have perfectly forgiven the royalists, and you seem to wonder that we should still retain any resentment against them for their joining with the savages to burn our houses, and murder and scalp our friends, our wives, and our children. I forget who it was that said: "We are commanded to forgive our enemies, but we are nowhere commanded to forgive our friends." Certain it is, however that atrocious injuries done to us by our friends are naturally more deeply, resented than the same done by enemies. They have left us, to live under the government of their king in England and Nova Scotia. We do not miss them, nor wish their return; nor do we envy
them their present happiness.
   The accounts you give me of the great prospects you have respecting your manufactures, agriculture, and commerce, are pleasing to me; for I still love England and wish it prosperity. You tell me that the government of France is abundantly punished for its treachery to England in assisting us. You might also have remarked that the government of England had been punished for its treachery to France in assisting the Corsicans, and in seizing her ships in time of full peace, without any previous declaration of war. I believe governments are pretty near equal in honesty, and cannot with much propriety praise their own in preference to that of their neighbors.
   You do me too much honor in naming me with Timoleon. I am like him only in retiring from my public labors; which indeed my stone and other infirmities of age have made indispensably necessary.
   I hope you are by this time returned from your visit to your native country, and that the journey has given a firmer consistence to your health. Mr. Penn's prosperity in this country, which you inquire about, is still immensely great; and I understand he has received ample compensation in England for the part he lost.
   I think you have made a happy choice of rural amusements: the protection of the bees, and destruction of the hop insect. I wish success to your experiments, and shall be glad to hear the result. Your "Theory of Insects" appears the most ingenious and plausible of any that have hitherto been proposed by philosophers.
   Our new Constitution is now established with eleven States, and the accession of a twelfth is soon expected. We have had one session of Congress under it, which was conducted with remarkable prudence and a good deal of unanimity. Our late harvests were plentiful, and our produce still fetches a good price, through an abundant foreign demand and the flourishing state of our commerce. I am ever, my friend, yours most affectionately,
         B. Franklin.


Franklin's Request for Prayer "...if a sparrow cannot fall to the ground without his notice, is it probable that an empire can rise without his aid? We have been assured, Sir, in the sacred writings that "except the Lord build they labor in vain that build it." I firmly believe this; and I also believe that without his concurring aid we shall succeed in this political building no better than the Builders of Babel..."
"...I therefore beg leave to move -- that henceforth prayers imploring the assistance of Heaven, and its blessings on our deliberations, be held in this Assembly every morning before we proceed to business..."

The American Form of Government: When Benjamin Franklin exited the Constitutional convention he was asked by a woman “Sir what have you given us?” his immediate response was “A republic ma’am, if you can keep it.” Yet most Americans today have been persuaded that our nation’s Governmental System is a Democracy and not a Republic. The difference between these two is essential in understanding Americanism and the American system.

Franklin's Letter To Ezra Stiles "Here is my Creed: I believe in one God, Creator of the Universe. That He governs it by his Providence. That he ought to be worshipped. That the most acceptable Service we can render to him, is doing Good to his other Children. That the Soul of Man is immortal, and will be treated with Justice in another Life respecting its Conduct in this. These I take to be the fundamental Principles of all sound Religion, and I regard them as you do, in whatever Sect I meet with them."


Poor Richards Aphorisms (Poor
Benjamin Franklin As Governor of Pensylvania came up with a plan to raise church attendance
Benjamin Franklin's Christianity and sanity were questioned because he was Fiercly anti-Slavery
Early in life Benjamin Franklin called himself a "Deist" which the definition at the time does not match up with the current definition, then it meant mere skeptisism about the divinity of Jesus, Was very active religiously, only not Orthadox.